Camp Nelson Refugee Camp

Historical Marker # 1965 in Jessamine County notes the location of the Camp Nelson refugee camp, which housed the families of hundreds of African American soldiers.

Camp Nelson was established in 1863 as a recruiting station and quartermaster supply base for military operations into East Tennessee. In the spring of 1864, when African American soldiers were finally allowed to be recruited and trained in Kentucky, Camp Nelson became the largest center for United States Colored Troops in the state.

As thousands of slaves and free men of color flocked to Camp Nelson to enlist and train for the army, many of the soldiers' families came, too. Refugees first arrived at the camp to find work and protection even before black soldiers were accepted into the Union army. When African American recruitment formally opened, however, a flood of mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters arrived to be with their loved ones, for sanctuary against whites who opposed African American enlistments, and for a taste of freedom. One former slave reportedly exclaimed, "See how much better off we are now than we was four years ago. It used to be five hundred miles to get to Canada from Lexington, but now it’s only eighteen miles. Camp Nelson is our Canada."

The large number of refugees created a problem that the army was not prepared to handle. More than once the commanders of the post ordered those not working or serving with the army to immediately leave the camp. These commands, however, had little permanent effect until November 1864, when camp commander Speed S. Fry ordered the refugees to be forcibly expelled. The refugees' makeshift shelters were then leveled.

Unfortunately, the November expulsion coincided with an extreme cold weather snap, which caused many of the refugees to suffer from the freezing temperatures. More than one hundred of the refugees died from exposure. Due to these deaths, the order was countermanded and housing was built for refugee families in a location adjacent to the soldiers' camp. In addition, the fallout from the expulsion prompted Congress to pass a bill that freed the families of slaves who enlisted in the Union army.

After the war the refugee camp became the community of Ariel. Eventually renamed Hall, it continued to be a vibrant African American community well into the twentieth century.

Images

Camp Nelson Refugee Cottages

Camp Nelson Refugee Cottages

This image shows the long rows of duplex housing units built to house the large numbers of refugees that flooded into Camp Nelson during 1864 and 1865. Courtesy of Camp Nelson Civil War Heritage Park. View File Details Page

Camp Nelson Refugees

Camp Nelson Refugees

This image shows a number of African American refugees outside of a building in the Camp Nelson complex. In addition to schools the refugee camp included a laundry, mess hall, and teachers™ quarters, among other buildings. Courtesy of Camp Nelson Civil War Heritage Park. View File Details Page

Camp Nelson Refugee School

Camp Nelson Refugee School

This image shows refugee children being taught at a school at the Camp Nelson refugee camp. Courtesy of Camp Nelson Civil War Heritage Park. View File Details Page

Camp Nelson USCT Barracks

Camp Nelson USCT Barracks

This period photograph shows the Colored Soldiers™ barracks at Camp Nelson. Many of the soldiers that enlisted at Camp Neslon brought their families with them. Courtesy of Camp Nelson Civil War Heritage Park. View File Details Page

Camp Nelson Letter

Camp Nelson Letter

In this letter white soldier Charles Atkin wrote to his wife about attending an African American church service at Camp Nelson. Written in February 1864, it shows that Camp Nelson proved to be a magnet for slaves seeking to escape slavery even before black troops were formally recruited in Kentucky. Courtesy of the Kentucky Historical Society. View File Details Page

Civil War Era Kentucky Railway Map

Civil War Era Kentucky Railway Map

This Civil War era railway map of Kentucky was marked by someone with the location of Camp Nelson, as well as other important Civil War sites. Courtesy of the Kentucky Historical Society. View File Details Page

Cite this Page:

Tim Talbott, “Camp Nelson Refugee Camp,” ExploreKYHistory, accessed March 29, 2017, http://explorekyhistory.ky.gov/items/show/170.
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