Historical Marker #1640 in Erlanger identifies the exact center of the population of the United States in 1880. The location was north latitude 39o, 4', 8" and west longitude 84o, 39', 40", which was within a few hundred yards of this historical maker. The population base in 1880 was 49,371,340.
The United States Census of 1880 was the tenth census to be conducted. The act authorizing the 1880 census gave supervision of the enumeration to a body of officers, known as supervisors of the census, who were specifically chosen for work on the census. The terms expired when the results were compiled and published.
The census act required each enumerator to personally visit each residence or dwelling in his sub-division, and each individual family living within those premises. Information was gathered from the head of the household or the most credible. If the family was not available, the enumerator was instructed by the law to obtain the information as best as able from the family or families living nearest to the residence. The 1880 decennial census was taken on five schedules: "Population," "Mortality," "Agriculture," "Social Statistics," and "Manufacturing."